Chennai Muncipal Solid Waste Management
CMSWPL- Corporation of Chennai
Compost (Bio-organic Fertilizer)

Hyderabad Integrated MSW Limited, has developed an effective and eco-friendly technology for bioconversion of organic fractions in Municipal Solid Waste into a useful end product i.e. Bio-organic Soil-enricher. Hyderabad Integrated MSW Limited has adopted both a controlled biological process as well as mechanical screening thereafter.

A composting process seeks to harness the natural forces of decomposition to secure the conversion of organic waste into organic manure. Hyderabad Integrated MSW Limited Has chosen to travel the route of aerobic composting. In order to accelerate and control the aerobic composting a specially formulated biological Inoculum is used to treat the organic waste. The key element in HiMSWLtd. Technology employed.

The management & operations teams operate round the clock, every day, all year. They work to ensure the Following parameters are optimized to preserve the nutrition and deliver the best yield.

Moisture Content

Low moisture will lead to mortality of microbes. Too much moisture, on the other hand, will lead to anaerobic conditions making the inoculated microbes ineffective. Thus the moisture content of the waste is maintained between 40 & 45% .


Thanks to the exothermic biological activities of aerobic bacteria temperature rises to 65 to 70oC within a short time span. This temperature is achieved & maintained throughout the biological cycle.


Since aerobic bacteria are used in the biological process, proper aeration is required to ensure availability of oxygen.Scheduled turning of the heaps followed by regular inspections ensure adequate aeration

Carbon & Nitrogen Ratio (C:N Ratio)

CN Ratio should be maintained below 50 for speedy composting. If it is high, the decomposition process will be slow. If CN Ratio is very high, Nitrogenous material like cow-dung may have to be added to bring down CNR to the desired level. At the end of biological process, CN Ratio should come down below 20.

Characteristics Colour Black to dark brown
Texture Free flowing coarse powder
Variable weed seeds Absence
Odour Earthy smell
Maturity test Positive (Digested)
Moisture % 20-25
Total organic matter % 20-25
pH 6.8-7.8
Carbon: Nitrogen ratio 12.1:18.1
Nitrogen 1.60 to 2.50
Phosphorous 0.80 to 1.20
Potassium 0.80 to 1.20
Test Results from K.N. Laboratory
Parameters As per FCO Standards Results
Moisture % by weight 15 to 25 17.6
Colour Dark brown to Black Dark brown to Black
Odor Absence of foul odor Absence of foul odor
Particle Size A minimum of 90 % material should pass through 4.0mm IS sieve A minimum of 90 % material should
pass through 4.0mm IS sieve
Bulk density (g/cm3) < 1 0.84
Total Organic Carbon % by weight, minimum 12 18.2
Total Nitrogen (as N) % by weight, minimum 8 1.4
Total Phosphates (as P2O5) % by weight, minimum 4 0.8
Total Potash (as K2O) % by weight, minimum 4 1.2
C:N ratio <20 18.6
pH 6.5 to 7.5 7.27.2
Conductivity (as dsm-1) less tha 4 1.3
Pathogens NIL NIL
Heavy metal content (as mg/Kg) maximum NIL NIL
Arsenic (as As2O3) 10 7.8 ppm
Cadmium (as Cd) 5 4.2 ppm
Chromium (as Cr) 50 33.2 ppm
Copper (as Cu) 300 110 ppm
Mercury (as Hg) 0.15 0.14 ppm
Nickel (as Ni) 50 43.6 ppm
Lead (Pb) 100 25 ppm
Zinc (Zn) 1000 500 ppm

Compost can be used as

  • Bio-Organic fertilizer - Combination with chemical fertilizers; Side dressing along the rows or encircling the plants.
  • Soil Nourishmnet Agent - In contaminated land remediation projects, land reclamation, removal of sludge from tank bottoms in refineries. Compost is also used as a soil binder for soil removal/land reclamation projects
  • Landscaping - In big industries, golf courses & other vegetative coverings.

For further details Contact:

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